X is definitely running.
I do not know what your previous desktop graphical environment thing was.
KDE is easiest started with kdm, gnome with gdm, I think. Is it one of these you're after?
The link http://i38.tinypic.com/25jcneu.png
shows X with a simple window manager. Look in /home/yourusername/.xinitrc or ditto .xsession and see if it's something like:
You may get a more upmarket window manager by putting it at the *end* of this file. startx calls one of these files and X does what the file says - but shuts down if there is no running program inside it.
If, say, it's KDE you are after, then you can start it with
# /etc/init.d/kdm restart
If it's installed. It's a bit unclear what you are wanting.
Hang on, just looked at the last link in your post and it's the sort of thing that the session managers above would produce so suggest you just click on of the things at the bottom, "session" would be favorite and pick something that looks sexy.