Windows uses a protocol called SMB to share directories and services over a LAN.
Linux supports SMB in a number of ways. Nautilus is the default browser application for Gnome, and (apparantly) supports SMB itself. You can start Nautilus from KDE by hitting Alt+F2 and typing nautilus.
The more usual way to browse a Windows share on a Linux computer is to mount it. This makes the Windows share appear as part of the filesystem, usually under the /mnt/ or /media/ directory. You can either mount it yourself, using the "mount -t smbfs" command (see the "mount" man-page for more details, look for the the type smbfs) or use your distribution's setup tool to create a mount-point for it.
Once mounted, you can view the share in both the console and KDE (and any other window manager) just like any other part of the filesystem; \\windowscomp\shared\files\text.txt might become /media/files/text.txt.
If you're talking about interacting with Windows shared printers, this is a little bit harder (unless they're PostScript printers); see the CUPS documentation for instructions.
Hope that helps,
— Robert J. Lee.