My Personal Experience about Installation, Configuration, Using DeLi Linux 0.8, etc..
Below is my DeLi Linux 0.8 diaries series, copy from my english blog: Learning Diary. It almost includes all the content I have ever known abount DeLi Linux, e.g., installation, configuration, using, etc.. I hope it will be helpful for people who is interested in DeLi Linux. You are welcome to copy any party of this DeLi Linux 0.8 diaries series for any use based on the premise that you should mark these diaries' source is my english blog (Learning diary ): http://www.learndiary.com/en/ . But, these diaries is only my personal experience, there is no warranty about it. So, try this by your own risk. Maybe, I will do some updating about these diaries, if you want get the latest version of these diaries, please visit my blog. Thanks.
DeLi Linux is an international desktop light linux distribution for the old 486 to PIII computer. Its goal is to make a linux OS for the person who can't afford a new computer or won't discard their old computer. This is a respectable goal, of course, it a big challenge. I think, the difficulty of making such a light linux distribution isn't less than those common distributions, even more difficult. Because, there is a precondition must be considered, that is the limited system resource.
There are some light linux distributions, but, some of them occupy not little resource, or can't support chinese (e.g., that famous DSL). DeLi has an aim high goal just is similar to Ubuntu's, to be a international light linux distribution, let's everyone who speaking different language can enjoy this linux distribution customized for that old computer.
From the last version of DeLi Linux (DeLi Linux 0.7.2), I start touching this linux distribution, and translated its chinese wiki and homepage, I has being joined discussing on its forum actively, and being the moderator of DeLi Linux Chinese Forumcurrently. About one year past, I have some experience on using DeLi Linux. In order to introduce this distribution to chinese users ( of course, I will translate diaries into english for introducing it to more users), I decide make a summary of learning and using DeLi Linux from one year ago. I think, this will be beneficial to both others and myself.
Here is my writing plan (I will add its URL link after a diary be finished):
1, What is DeLi Linux? Introduce the goald, history and feature of DeLi Linux, etc. ;
2, DeLi Linux 0.8 Installation, how to install DeLi Linux 0.8, include installing from cdrom and installing from ISO file in hard disk;
3, Configure DeLi Linux , how to configure it, X Windows, net, mouse, usb flash disk, etc. ;
4, Installing Software on DeLi Linux, how to install software we need, we can install it with "pacman" command from softwares repertory, or transplant some softwares in DeLi 0.7.2 into DeLi 0.8, or build it from source;
5, Configure the Chinese Environment On DeLi Linux 0.8, how to set a console environment support chinese with softwares: Zhcon + Screen + W3m + Vim, etc. ; And, the Chinese X Window environment, how to set a satisfying chinese using environment under X Window of DeLi Linux;
I hope my diaries will be helpful for the linux fans or users, especially that linux fan or user who has old computer.
This is the first diary of DeLi Linux diaries Series: What is DeLi Linux? The next will be "DeLi Linux 0.8 Installation".
I will introduce a light weight Linux distribution called "DeLi Linux" which come from Germany according to my knowledge in this diary. Include its goal, history and feature, etc..
DeLi Linux was founded and maintained mainly by Henry Jensen (nicky name: haary) who come from Germany. There is some basic introduction in DeLi's homepage: http://www.delilinux.org/. I will repeat something plus my understanding about DeLi.
The goal of DeLi Linux: DeLi Linux is a Linux distribution designed for 486 to PIII old computer. Because it isn't everyone can buy a new machine, or, someone is unwilling to discard their old computer. The commercial OS such as Windows, they will not support the old OS for such an old computer any more. What is their attitude? Just discard your computer, upgrade you Windows to the newest "Vista". The result is software industry and hardware industry chases each other, forms a vicious circle. The power consumed more and more, and the electric garbage become more and more. DeLi Linux needs resolve its no.1 bug: #1: current-software: Doesn't run on old Hardware. DeLi Linux is designed to fix this bug. The inspiration of this "no.1 bug" comes from the no.1 bug of Ubuntu: Microsoft has a majority market share. Ubuntu is designed to fix this bug.
The history of DeLi Linux: We can know its history from wiki page:DeLi Linux Release. There are 11 releases from V0.1 released at november 2, 2002 to V0.8 released at May 28, 2008. DeLi Linux has been founded 7 years! It was based on Slackware from V0.1 to V0.6; Haary has rewrited entire system from scratch in V0.7 which released at september 15, 2006, it wasn't based on slackware anymore at this release, and, switched glibc to uClibc; In the V0.8 which released at May 28, 2008, the X windows system has switched GTK1 to GTK2 and using UTF-8 encode, this changing made DeLi become to a real international light weight linux distribution. The advanced pacman packages management system come from Arch Linux was adopted in DeLi 0.8, this made software installation and upgrade more conveniently. But, I think, the DeLi Linux was maintained mainly by haary one person for so many years, we can see haary is so inflexible and respectable. We can see the diary was written at June 14, 2007 in Henry's Blog, we will know haary want open the developing and maintaining of DeLi. But, this opening need more progress currently. I guess the reason of slow developing is DeLi was only developed and maintained by haary on person in the spare time basically. So, DeLi is still a beta version Linux today. I think, open way and more people joining the developing and maintaining will be helpful DeLi's goal. Haary has orientate the DeLi Linux towards more open, I think, maybe, the developing will more faster than before.
The feature of DeLi Linux: I talk about this with DeLi Linux 0.8. I can say its feature in a line is: an international light weight Linux distribution. What is "international distribution"? it is you can set it speak any language you want. DeLi Linux has adopted uClibc and GTK2, so it can support UTF-8 encoding very well. There are 169 languages selecting when we setup its language with tool "delisetup"; There are 109 langauges directories in directory "/usr/share/locale"; So, every GTK2 software which support UTF-8 can run on DeLi normally. The chinese language support is well when set encoding to "zh_CN.UTF-8". From the aspect of light distribution, I think DeLi Linux has reached a limit of light distribution based the precondiction of an international distribution. Because it adopted uClibc designed for embbed system, this make the size and memory consuming less more; And, it has the good costumization ability which originated from Slackware, there is no any default service start when boot almost, everything is controlled by youself; it uses some light weight softwares, such as: a light windows manager Icewm, Sylpheed email client, Abiword word processor, Netsurf web browser and Vlc video player, etc.. A full installation needs about 750M space, the packages list is: http://www.delilinux.org/packages.txt . I think, the full installation metioned ahead should include all these packages, but I haven't check it carefully. Of couse, DeLi Linux reduces some usability when use uClibc for faster speed and smaller size. Some close-source software which compiled with glibc can't run on DeLi 0.8, e.g., Opera web browser, the flash plugin for Firefox, etc..
But, DeLi Linux is still a beta version distribution although it has been founded almost 7 years, it is still unstable. In spite of its developing speed and way, DeLi Linux has its own goal, I wish DeLi Linux will have a bright future under the guiding of its great goal: make a Linux OS for old computer.
This is the second diary of the DeLi Linux Diaries Series: DeLi Linux 0.8 Installation, the previous is: What is DeLi Linux?; The next will be: DeLi Linux 0.8 Configuration.
I will introduce how to install DeLi Linux 0.8 in this diary mainly, include installing from cdrom and installing from ISO file in hard disk.
First, you need download DeLi Linux 0.8, the best choice is DeLi 0.8 full ISO - with GUI (252 MB), the file name is: deli-0.8.0-full.iso. Here is downloading page: http://www.delilinux.org/wiki/doku.php?id=download. The first choice I sugguest is downloading with BT software, that is Torrent, there are some BT downloading softwares under every OS. It is no necessary to repeat it here.
For most common user, the first choice of installation way is burn the ISO file into a cdrom, then install from cdrom. See DeLi Linux Wiki page: installation:cdrom [DeLi Linux Wiki] get the manual about how to install from cdrom.
I will introduce how to install from the ISO file in hard disk mainly. You can try if you have some basic Linux knowledge.
I will only introduce a way of installing from hard disk I have used. The pre-condition is you have a bootable Linux sytem in your computer and have left an empty linux partition used to install DeLi Linux.
At first, extract the ISO file into a Linux partition. I extracted it into an EXT2 Linux partition. I have tried installation with extracting it into a Windows FAT32 partition, but, I failed. Maybe, there is some bug in "deliinstall" program, the bug maybe is related to mount FAT32 partition (See bug report page: #32:delitools:deliinstall mount fat32 partition error). I suppose your deli-0.8.0-full.iso is located in directory " /mnt/download ", and prepare extract to directory " /mnt/hdc3 " (/dev/hdc3), and want install DeLi into partition " /dev/hdc1". The detail ISO extracting setups is:
1),Create a mount point for ISO file with root account: mkdir /mnt/isofile ;
2), Mount ISO file: mount -o loop /mnt/download/deli-0.8.0-full.iso /mnt/isofile ;
3), Copy the files in ISO file into dest directory: cp /mnt/isofile/* /mnt/hdc3/ -r ;
All the installation files have been copied into installation directory in this way, there are some directories or files like these in directory " /mnt/hdc3 " : Changelog, INSTALL, isolinux, pkg.
Then, edit the boot menu in your old bootable Linux sytem, I suppose you boot your old linux system with Grub. edit file " /boot/grub/menu.lst " according to the file " /mnt/hdc3/isolinux/isolinux.cfg " which is located in the installation files directory. The DeLi Installation Grub item like below:
If you use Lilo boot your system, here is the boot item for installing DeLi in config file " /etc/lilo.conf " :
Restart machine, select boot item "DeLi Linux 0.8 Installation" in Grub boot menu (or boot item "installdeli" in Lilo boot menu) enter installing, execute "deliinstall" after prompt to start installing, steps is similar as cdrom installation in the Wiki page mentioned above. According to the prompt message to process installation steps in turn: selecting keyboard layout, selecting root partition, formating root partition, typing the device name which installation files located, selecting kernel type (if it is SCSI boot partition), selecting swap partition, formating and activating swap partition, selecting language, set password of root, set common user account, installing Lilo boot program, install softwares and finishing installation. There is only one step you need notice: when you select the location which installation packages located, you maybe make a mistake, because the installation prompt wasn't updated when the DeLi Linux was updated. In this step, answser "NO" when ask you if search cdrom, then, it will ask you device name which include installation packages, you must enter the device name in Linux, here is "/dev/hdc3", not the partition name in Windows like "C:".
Additionally, in spite of you install DeLi from cdrom or hard disk, there are some tips you need notice:
1), Move between items with up, down, left, right key of keyboard, select item with space or return key, if there is "OK" item, move to it and press return key to accept your selection. The system will not prompt you for confirmation in the installation process, so, please confirm your selection carefully before press return key to next;
2), Activate swap partition before execute "deliinstall" on low memeory machine, activate it when less than 48M memory according to the official DeLi Linux Wiki (See the begin part of this Wiki page: http://www.delilinux.org/wiki/doku.p...allation:cdrom). The reason is the Pacman program may have problem when executed on low memory machine in installing progress. The detail steps is described below. Activate swap partition before execute "deliinstall" after start installation system. Suppose the swap partition is /dev/hdc2, the command to activate it is " swapon /dev/hdc2 "; Please make a swap partition if it hasn't existed. The steps of make a swap partition is: make a swap partition with type Id 82 when make partitions (e.g., with tool "Fdisk" in linux), format the swap partition with command " mkswap /dev/hdc2 " (change "/dev/hdc2" to your swap partition). Haary has write a light weight pacman alternate to resolve this problem, see: http://www.delilinux.org/wiki/doku.php?id=devel:0.8 ;
3), Select the third "skip" item if you plan to boot DeLi Linux with other system when install Lilo boot program; Select the first "simple" item will install boot data into MBR(Main Boot Record) of the first hard disk drive simply, this will overwrite the old boot data in the MBR of your first drive; It is a bit complicated when you select the second "expert" item. Note, because the installation tool will write the same line of "image" item for each system booting section in the config file "/etc/lilo.conf" like "image = /boot/vmlinuz", so after you finished Lilo installation, you must modify the "etc/lilo.conf" manually if you plan to boot other system with your newly installed DeLi Linux. For my example like this " image = /mnt/hda1/boot/vmlinuz-ide-2.4.31 ". And, after you modified file " /etc/lilo.conf " you should execute command "lilo" to update the MBR;
4), I suggest common user select "YES" to install "all softwares" when execute the last step of installation. Note, it will not install all packages in installation packages directory even you select "YES". For example, some development tools will not be installed. If you want compile your own program from source, you need execute " pacman -S devel " to install all development tools after you configured your system.
How to install all packages if you select "NO" when execute the last step of installing process? Here is a way you can try. I have tried but I am not sure if it is 100 percent right.
First, configure the "[cdrom]" section in file "/etc/pacman.conf", here is my example:
Additionally, I will instroduce a way for you to install DeLi Linux if you have no other system and no cdrom in you computer, that is move your hard disk into other computer with Linux system installed to install the DeLi Linux into you hard disk. Locate the Lilo boot data into your hard disk when installing Lilo program ( for my example, I select "/dev/hdc" instead of the default "/dev/hda" ). This doesn't infect you host sytem. Then, move your hard disk back into your computer, set the same IDE number and primary or slave type of hard disk as it setted in previous host computer ( For exampe: the primary drive /dev/hdc plug into IDE2 ), set the system boot from this hard disk drive in BIOS. Install the DeLi on other faster computer will make the installation progress faster a little. If you have a floppy can boot from it and a cdrom which you can't boot from it directly, there is still a cdrom installation way to install DeLi Linux (See the begin part of the page: CD-ROM installation ).
There will be some same files write into you disk in spite of you install DeLi Linux in this or that computer. The differentness is the next step "DeLi Linux Configuruation" I will write in the next diary.
This is the third diary of DeLi Linux Diaries Series: DeLi Linux 0.8 Configuration, the previous is: DeLi Linux 0.8 Installation. The next will be: Softwares Installaiton on DeLi Linux 0.8.
Here is official DeLi Linux 0.8 configuration Wiki page: First steps after installation. According to my experience, I will make a complementing to offcial manual in this diary. I will introduce how to configure DeLi Linux 0.8, include the configuration of X Windows, network, sound card, mouse, usb flash disk, etc.. Basically, this will not include the configuration for a specific language. The detail of configuration of chinese console and X Windows environment and related softwares I will post in another diaries.
Restart the system installed by " deliinstall ", login console with root account. Start configuring by type " delisetup " apfter command prompt. The first item is keyboard configuration, simplified chinese user select "us"; The second item is language, simpified chinese user select " zh_CN.UTF-8 "; The third is Lilo boot program setup, I have introduced the detail of it in diaries DeLi Linux 0.8 Installation; The fourth is " ppp " connection configuration, it is old style telephone dialing connect to internet, I think there should no many person is using such a way basically, and, I haven't tested this way under Linux. You can configure it according to the prompt of the program if you need.
The fifth item is configuration of local network, you must set it in spite of you are in a local intranet or connect to internet by ADSL directlly. Input the host name, such as " deli "; Input the domain name of your computer located in, there isn't a domain name for me, so I enter one started without a dot ".", such as " localdomain "; The next is set IP for machine, please choose one in these three types according to your environment. I will introduce these three types configuration simply.
1), Static IP: If you are allocated a static IP, Gateway and DNS, you can use this configuration. It is in an intranet normally. enter data according to the prompt, e.g.:
ip: 192.168.0.106, netmask: 255.255.255.0, gateway: 192.168.0.1; dns: 22.214.171.124
Next is to load net card driver, the first item is detecting automatically; the second is modifying config file "/etc/rc.modules" manually. At first, let program detecting net card, if the result is error, the net card can't work, then, you must modify the config file. I have a "ne" compatible ISA net card, but the system detected it as "com20020" net card, it can't work. I have to modify the config file "/etc/rc.modules" manually. I added a new line "/sbin/modprobe ne io=0x240" to the end of this file. The parameter "io=0x240" I got from the windows97 which the net card have ever been worked under it(You can get this data from other way, e.g., search at internet). You don't need add a "io=xxx" if it is a PNP net card, e.g., "/sbin/modprobe 8139too";
2), DHCP: If your IP is alloctated by a DHCP server in local network automatically, or "cable modem", or a DSL service (I use an ADSL to connect to internet, but, when set it to DHCP I can't connect to internet, I must load the net card driver in "/etc/rc.modules", then configure it as "loopback" which I will describe later, then configure ADSL with program "pppoe-setup", only in this way I can connect to internat with ADSL, I don't know the reason yet. But, if I configure it as DHCP or static IP, after I execute "route add default ppp0", it can connect to internet too), then select DHCP. This also include a net card driver configuration like above;
3), loopback: If you are using a serical modem, or a notebook net card (this is related to pcmcia), or has no net card, then select "loopback". This will not setup the net card driver;
You can surf internet if you are in an intranet which has a gateway connect to internet. Ping a domain name (e.g., google.com) to confirm if you configure the network right.
If you are an ADSL user, you must setup "pppoe" after finished the local network configuration with "delisetup" to connect internet. First, confirm if the "ppp" and "rp-pppoe" packages have been intalled. Execute command "pacman -Q package name" to confirm this. Then, type "pppoe-setup" to configure ADSL connection. The program will ask you ADSL user name, password, network interface, DNS and firewall, etc.. Answer it with your own situation. Normally, the network interface is "eth0", DNS is "server", and firewall is "1". Confirm your choices and finish the configuration. Then you can start ADSL connection by execute "pppoe-start" with root account, "pppoe-stop" to close the connection. You can write "pppoe-start" into a config file to let ADSL connection start automatically when system boot. For example, you can write "pppoe-start &" as a new line at the end of file "/etc/rc.local".
Because there is bug in the "delisetup" program, it will simply quit when select the item 9, item A and B ( See bug report page in Wiki: #23:deli:delisetup options lead to wrong place), so, I don't set these items in "delisetup". Additional software installation in item 9 I can use the pacman program to install it which I have introduced it in diary DeLi Linux 0.8 Installation; Item A I found there isn't a software called "masqmail" in deli's current packages reposity(a new version of "delisetup" in deli's packages resporiy has deleted item 9 and item A). I edited file "/etc/rc.conf" manually to configure the services need start when system boot in item B. I introduce how to configure item B here. "ls /etc/rc.d/" to see valid services, then edit file "/etc/rc.conf", fill the services name need started into the "" in the line SERVICES="" sperated with space. For example: SERVICES="net sshd". Note, don't write "gpm" into it, I found it will stop the system booting. If you need start "gpm" service when boot, you can add a new line "/etc/rc.d/gpm start &" into file "/etc/rc.local" ;
Additionally, you maybe meet problem when configure "Xorg X Server" in console (See bug report Wiki page: #27:delitools:some delisetup errors), it maybe cause errors when write into file " /etc/X11/xorg.conf ". So, my method is configure item 7 "Tiny X Server" first, then enter into X Windows to configure "XOrg X Server" with command "delisetup" in xterm. In fact, both "Tiny X Server" and "XOrg X Server" are X server for X Windows, the first can be used in almost any computer, but with limited 60HZ refresh rate of monitor screen, it is a bit uncomfortable for eyes when use CRT monitor; the second has higher refresh rate.
Now select item 7 to configure "Tiny X Server", next move to "Xvesa X-server", next choose "video mode", e.g., "800x600x15", finished it will return back to main config menu. Then select item 8 "Setup Window Manager", there is only one choice "icewm", select "OK". Then, move the bar to the last item "Quit" to quit main menu. You need link the mouse device "/dev/mouse" to a real mouse device in order to use mouse under this "Tiny X Server", here is example command "ln -s /dev/ttyS0 /dev/mouse". You can write this line into file "/etc/rc.local" to let it start when system boot if you decide use this "Tiny X Server". After configured mouse, execute "startx" enter X Windows, click the terminal icon on the left-bottom corner to start "xterm". At first, you need "mkdir /etc/X11" to create that directory manually, this is a bug too. If you don't do this, you will get a "write to /etc/X11/xorg.conf failed" error. Then, execute "delisetup" in xterm to start configure "XOrg X Server" if you don't use "Tiny X Server". Configure "XOrg X Server" is a basic knowledge of Linux system, according to your computer and the setup prompt to make some choices, that's ok. I found, the most error is select "Driver" for video card, valid video card driver can be found in directory "/usr/lib/xorg/modules/drivers" in DeLi Linux 0.8, if there isn't a proper driver for your card, select "vesa" is a good idea, but, the monitor will work at only refresh rate 60HZ. If even "vesa" can't work, then use "Tiny X Server" you configure it before(if so, you need re-configure your "Tiny X Server"). If all is ok, press "CTRL+ALT+Backspace" to return console, start X Windows with command "startx". Additionally, if you use wheel mouse, there are two parameters like below(only for reference):
If you have sound card, edit file "/etc/rc.modules" with root account, add a new line to load your sound card driver, e.g., "/sbin/modprobe cmpci" (change the "cmpci" to your own card driver). If you are using old ISA sound card, maybe, you need add parameters such as "io=0xxxx", e.g., I am using an old "sb" compatible ISA sound card "/sbin/modprobe sb io=0x220", I got this parameter when I use it under Windows97. You can get the parameter from the other ways. OSS sound card driver is used in DeLi Linux 0.8. After finished sound card setup, you can play music with "mpg123" or "xmms2" now.
In order to use my usb flash disk and usb mouse, I add a new line "/sbin/modprobe usb-ohci" into file "/etc/rc.modules" in a P6SEP-Me (SIS system) mainboard computer, and add a new line "/sbin/modprobe usb-uhci" into file "/etc/rc.modules" in an i810 mainboard machine.
At last, the basic system has been configured ok. You can use DeLi Linux 0.8 basically already. But, if you need a comfortable chinese console and X Windows environment on DeLi, you need another setup steps. I will introduce them later.
This is the fourth diary of DeLi Linux Diaries Series: DeLi Linux 0.8 Software Installation, the previous is: DeLi Linux 0.8 Configuration; The next will be: DeLi Linux 0.8 Chinese Environment Configuration.
I will introduce how to install software on DeLi Linux 0.8 mainly in this diary, include Pacman packages manager, ABS source installation, transplant the softwares on DeLi Linux 0.7.2 into DeLi Linux 0.8 and common installation from source.
DeLi Linux 0.7.x series uses "deliget" tool to install binary packages from the repertory of DeLi Linux 0.7.x on internet, and borrow a "ports" source installation system from Crux. DeLi Linux 0.8 has borrowed the powerful "Pacman" package manager and "ABS" system of Arch Linux for software installation. Please "man pacman" to get the manual of pacman, or see page: Using Pacman, or the wiki page "Pacman" at Arch Linux official website. Get the manual of "ABS" system from the wiki page "ABS" of Arch Linux. But, please note, DeLi Linux 0.8 isn't using ABS sytem of Arch Linux totally. Below, I only introduce the "ABS" style installing softwares from source on DeLi Linux 0.8.
Here is an instance of using "ABS" system to install "skipstone" web browser from source (In fact, there is skipstone binary package in repertory of DeLi Linux 0.8, you can install it with command "pacman -S skipstone". I believe there isn't skipstone binary package at begin, so I try to install it with "makepkg" command of DeLi Linux 0.8, it belongs to ABS system of Arch Linux.).
At first, download ports20085029.tar.gz from here;
Execute " su " become to root user;
Extract "ports20085029.tar.gz" into a directory (e.g., /usr/) with command "tar xfvz ports20085029.tar.gz -C /usr";
Execute " export ABSROOT="/usr/ports" ";
Then, it will spend some time to download, compile and install "skipstone" and its dependencies packages.
Here is a tip, because DeLi Linux 0.8 is using the package management system of Arch Linux, so, if you need a software which deli has not provided, you can search and download its "PKGBUILD" file at the official website of Arch Linux, make some modifying(e.g., delete the line"arch=(i686 x86_64) " in PKGBUILD file), then, " makepkg -c " to build the software. I have built i810 display card driver on DeLi Linux 0.8 in this way, see the replay by littlebat in this topic: No i810 driver...why?. Just download related software's PKGBUILD file in turn, compile them with command " makepkg -c ". Some software's compiling maybe need head file you can copy it from another linux distribution (e.g., copy some needed head file *.h from ubuntu 6.06).
DeLi Linux 0.7.2 uses GTK1, but DeLi Linux 0.8 has switched to GTK2, so, some useful GTK1 software isn't included in DeLi Linux 0.8, such as Dillo, Firefox web browser, Xmms music player, Aop game, etc.. In order to save some time for building them from source, we can transplant them from DeLi Linux 0.7.2 into DeLi Linux 0.8. I introduce the method I have used, for some friends to refer.
First, download gtk1 packages:
Extract them into "/" with root account:
tar xfvz glib1*.tgz -C /
chmod +x /install/*.sh
Transplant gkt1-1.2.10-i386-3.tgz with same way.
Second, download and transplant some gtk1 softwares in DeLi 0.7.2, for example: Dillo-i18n web browser:
Third, some notes about transplanting firefox 1.5 in deli 0.7.2
I use Firefox 1.5 included in the DeLi0.7.2 big ISO cdrom image file, the file name is firefox-126.96.36.199-i386-1.tgz, after excuting the steps above, when I execute "firefox &", it will report such as the error "missing libstdc++.so.5", I resolved it by creating a soft link "libstdc++.so.5" which links to "libstdc++.so.6.0.3" with the command below:
ln -s /usr/lib/libstdc++.so.6.0.3 /usr/lib/libstdc++.so.5
But, I failed at tring to transplant the firefox I downloaded from DeLi Linux's packages repertory on internet (http://www.delilinux.de/packages/del...li2-i386-1.tgz).
Note, because the firefox in DeLi Linux 0.7.2 can't support xft font, so it isn't nice to see chinese web page, even can't display several chinese characters. I resolved this by using chinese bitmap font(e.g., wenquanyi bitmap chinese font), I will introduce it in the later diary for introducing chinese x window environment configuration.
If there isn't a binary package of software you need on DeLi, for open source software, you can try to build it from source. Because DeLi Linux is using uclibc now, so, it isn't all the open source software which can be compiled under glibc environment can build successfully under DeLi(maybe can compile successfully after patching). But, almost open source softwares can be compiled successfully. I have built some softwares below: Zhcon-0.2.6 chinese console environment, Gc-6.2, W3m-0.5.2 console web browser, Icecat-2 graphic web browser, Dillo-i18n-0.8.6 graphic web browser, i810 display card driver, etc.; Some softwares I have not compiled successfully such as: Firefox-1.5 graphic web browser, Nash open source flash player plugin, etc..
By the way, I introduce some softwares brought in DeLi Linux 0.8 below. Text editor: E3vi, Nano, Leafpad; Office: Abiword word processor, Gnumeric spreadsheet, Epdfview PDF viewer; Web browser: Lynx, Netsurf, Skipstone; Picture viewer: Gqview; Window manager: Icewm, Fluxbox; Music player: mpg123, xmms2; Video player: Vlc; File manager: Rox. Entire softwares list see: http://www.delilinux.org/packages.txt.
Ok, stop writing about software installation on DeLi Linux 0.8 here. The next will be: DeLi Linux Chinese Environment Configuration.
This is the fifth diary of DeLi Linux Diaries Series: DeLi Linux 0.8 Chinese Environment Configuration, the previous is: DeLi Linux 0.8 Software Installation. This is also the last diary of this series.
I will introduce how to configure a comfortable chinese environment on DeLi Linux 0.8, include console and X Window environment. The console environment will introduce installation and using of softwares below mainly: Zhcon chinese console environment (input method), Screen (full screen window manager); W3m web browser; Vim text editor. X Window environment will introduce mainly: Fcitx input method; Firefox1.5 web browser; Dillo2 web browser and chinese font (e.g., Wen Quan Yi).
Because we need compile softwares from source, so install development tools at first, execute " pacman -S devel " to install all development tools in DeLi Linux 0.8. If your have little hard disk space, it seems will work only install " binutils", you can try " pacman -S binutils ".
If you use chinese, and need to revitalize a very old machine (such as 486), console environment is a good choice. What can you do on a 486 plus Linux machine? I have used an Intel 486 DX100 plus 24M RAM machine a long time. I installed redhat linux 9.0 without X in it, I can do plenty of things on it, such as: W3m to surf internet, Wget to download, Mutt to receive and send mail, Mp3blaster to listen music, Gtmess MSN client, vim text editor, CVS, Ftp, Mysql, Emacs, Apache httpd, Jdk1.4, etc..(Some of these softwares I have not used on DeLi until today). So, I introduce console environment on DeLi Linux 0.8 first.
1, Zhcon chinese console environment (include WuBi and PinYin and some other chinese input methods)
DeLi Linux 0.8 has included Zhcon, if you don't install it, execute "pacman -S zhcon" to install it. login into console, execute " zhcon " start it. But, I have executed it faild on a 486 machine, see my bug report, it works after compile it from source. If you meet this situation, download it from here and compile it. Note, execute " export CXXFLAGS="$CXXFLAGS -liconv -lintl" " before " ./configure ", otherwise, you will can't compile it. See: Need help, I can't get a chinese console under DeLi Linux 0.7.90. Get the usage manual by press " CTRL+ALT+H ".
Additionally, you must login with root account to use Zhcon on DeLi Linux 0.8, then execute " screen " to open multiple virtual terminals in one console (so, you don't need to open another console to perform another program), then execute " su your-common-account " to perform common work under DeLi Linux 0.8. But, the mouse can't work under Zhcon on DeLi 0.8, I don't know the reason until today.
2, Vim text editor
The "vi" in DeLi Linux 0.8 is "e3vi", it isn't good at support chinese. And, Nano text editor can input chinese well under the utf8 environment of Zhcon (start zhcon with command "zhcon --utf8"), but, there is bug when W3m web bowser work under utf8 environment of Zhcon, I don't know if this bug is caused by Zhcon or W3m. I transplant the Vim-7.1 in DeLi Linux 0.7.2 into DeLi 0.8 with the way introduced in diary DeLi Linux 0.8 Software Installation, download Vim DeLi 0.7.2 package from: http://www.delilinux.de/packages/del...7.1-i386-1.tgz . Then, create a file called ".vimrc" under your home directory, here is a .vimrc file I modified from an article on internet, you can try it:
There isn't W3m in DeLi, so you need compile it from source. At first, you need compile and install Gc, I have tested, it seems new version Gc (such as: version 6.8) can't be compiled successfully on DeLi, gc6.2 can be compiled successfully. Download Gc6.2 from http://www.hpl.hp.com/personal/Hans_Boehm/gc/gc_source/ , compile and install it with default way.
Then download W3m-0.5.2 from http://prdownloads.sourceforge.net/w3m/ . Before compile W3m, set environment at first: " export LD_LIBRARY_PATH="/usr/lib:/usr/local/lib" ", otherwise, you maybe can't compile it successfully.
After compile and install W3m with default way, add a soft link "libgc.so.1" which link to "/usr/local/lib/libgc.so.1.0.2" under directory "/lib" with the command below:
First, create a soft link under /usr/bin which linked to w3m: ln -s /usr/local/bin/w3m /usr/bin/w3m , otherwise, you will fail to execute "w3m" for can't find command when you login into system with root and then switch to common user account with " su " command.
Use " w3m http://www.yoururl.com " open a URL address, press "U" key to enter the URL address you want to go. "H" key to call help menu. "O" key to call option config menu, then configure some necessary options. Note, press "OK" at the end of every section to finish the options config of this section. Select "YES" for "Render frames automatically" of "Display Settings" to support frame page; Modify the "Editor" to "/usr/bin/vim" in "External Program Settings" to use vim text editor which be transplanted ahead; Select "YES" for "Enable cookie processing" and "Accept cookies" in "Cookie Settings" to accept all cookies. Otherwise, you maybe can't login into some websites. If you will not accept the cookie of special website, add its domain name into "Domains to reject cookies from". The cookie config of W3m I don't understand clear, so only for refering; There is a section "Charset Settings" is important to view chinese web page (only for refering too, its only my personal experience), select"NO" for "System charset follows locale(LC_CTYPE)". Select "Chinese (EUC-CN, GB2312)" when view simplified chinese page and select "Chinese Taiwan (Big5， CP950)" plus switch to traditional chinese environment of zhcon by press "CTRL+F3" when view traditional chinese web page; If you use w3m in xterm in X Window(because I have set language environment into "zh_CN.UTF-8"), need select "Unicode (UTF-8) " in "Display charset" option.
Additionally, you can use "mutt + esmtp + fetchmail + procmail" to receive, write and send email. You can do some search about them; You can listen mp3 with Mp3blaster, etc.(I haven't test mutt combination and mp3blaster on DeLi Linux 0.8).
Introduce the chinese environment configuration of X Window on DeLi Linux 0.8 below
(some content copy from the wiki page of DeLi Linux: Internationalization and native language support)
1, Set chinese language:
Select “zh_CN.UTF-8” when setup by delisetup, it should be there are two lines at the end of file: /etc/profile like below:
2, Add a good looking chinese font
Copy a chinese *.ttf font into a font dir, e.g., a WenQuanYi font : “/usr/share/fonts/wenquanyi/wqy-zenhei/wqy-zenhei.ttf” . Then executed” fc-cache -fv ” with root and non-root user.
Copy a chinese bitmap font into the fonts directory above with the same way ( because the firefox1.5 transplanted from DeLi Linux 0.7.2 which I will introduce later need bitmap font for good experence when view chinese page, the reason is firefox1.5 in DeLi 0.7.2 didn't compile for xft font support), I select WenQuanYi Bitmap Song CJK Font here, I copy this bitmap font directory "wqy-bitmapfont" in ubuntu into directory "/usr/share/fonts/wenquanyi/". In order to enable this font in firefox1.5, need insert some parameter like below into /etc/X11/xorg.conf:
For example, a small and fast chinese input method software “fcitx“, compile it yourself, or install a ready-made binary package with command below:
Or, you can build a pacman package of fcitx with command “makepkg -c“, I borrowed the “PKGBUILD” script from archlinux: http://repos.archlinux.org/viewvc.cg...56&view=markup . I commented the line:”arch=(”i686” “x86_64”)” and the line “depends=(’libxft’ ‘libxpm’)”.
Then, add lines into “~/.xinitrc” before the last line, the last part of this file just like below:
In this way, chinese input method “fcitx” will startup automatically when “startx“.
Additionally, if you use the english environment configured with command " export LANG='en_US.UTF-8' " like above, you need insert a line before execute fcitx (e.g., insert it before "export XMODIFIERS="@im=fcitx" "):
4, Change font size of GTK2 programs
The font size is a bit small in the GTK2 program. Create a file “~/.gtkrc-2.0“, here is an example file, it select “wenquanyi zen hei” with font size 12 as the default font of these GTK2 programs:
The font size of “icewm” is a bit small too. Copy “/usr/share/icewm/preferences” into “~/.icewm/“, and uncomment the lines of font set, e.g., uncomment the line “# MenuFontNameXft=”sans-serif:size=10:bold” “, and change size to “12” like this “ MenuFontNameXft=”sans-serif:size=12:bold” “, this will make the font size of icewm menu a bit bigger.
6, Install a web browser called "skipstone" with good chinese support
The web browser “netsurf” come with DeLi 0.8 can display simple web page ( include chinese page ), but cannot input chinese into its input box with “fcitx” chinese input method. Skipstone is almost a full-function web browser and have a good chinese support. First, execute “su” to become the root user, then execute “pacman -S skipstone” to install skipstone web browser.
But, skipstone is still too heavy for old computer. I have tested the ram footprint of web browsers below with the command " pmap `pidof program name`|tail -1 ":
So, I troduce how to transplant firefox1.5 in DeLi Linux 0.7.2 into DeLi Linux 0.8, please see the content of "some notes about transplanting firefox 1.5 in deli 0.7.2" in page DeLi Linux 0.8 Software Installation for the detail method of tranplanting. Because the firefox1.5 in DeLi Linux 0.7.2 hasn't add xft font support, it isn't very nice to see chinese font web page, even it can't display some Chinese characters. I resolved this by using chinese bitmap font (e.g., wenquanyi bitmap font). WenQuanYi Bitmap Song CJK Font has been installed above. Select "Edit"->"Preferences"->"Content" in the menu of firefox, then set the font to "wenquanyi-wenquanyi bitmap song-iso10646-1" for chinese font and the font of "Other Languages". Then you can use beautiful WenQuanYi bitmap font :) .
7, Some skills
1), Enable xterm chinese display
Xterm’s default font can’t display chinese fully. Press “CTRL” key, don’t loose it, and click right button of mouse on the xterm windows, it will show a pop menu, don’t loose right button of mouse yet, move the mouse arrow down and select “Large”, loose “CTRL” key and right button of mouse. It can display chinese fully now. Additionally, add an option " -fa xx" when execute xterm then it can display chinese perfectly (e.g., xterm -fa w), it should be a font name after that "-fa", but, whatever I input after "-fa" on DeLi Linux 0.8 it can display same chinese font, I can't specify a specific chinese font. I don't know the reason.
2), Abiword display and input chinese
Abiword can’t display chinese by default, after you open a chinese text, press CTRL+A select all text, then select a chinese font, the chinese text will be displayed correctly.
Before you input chinese, select a chinese font first.
3), Activate chinese input method on Gnumeric
Left click mouse on the fomula input box, press CTRL+SPACE, chinese input method of fcitx can be activated.
4), Start some X programs slowly
For example, it is very slow to start some X programs such as Xterm, Xcalc, Xfontsel, etc., and occupy almost 100% CPU time when start them. Execute "sudo sed -i -e '/GBK/,/^}/d' /usr/share/X11/locale/zh_CN.UTF-8/XLC_LOCALE " to resolve this problem, I was inspired by Install Wine on Ubuntu. It just delete the GBK font section in the file "/usr/share/X11/locale/zh_CN.UTF-8/XLC_LOCALE". But, if you install WenQuanYi bitmap chinese font as above, it is no problem when start the X programs ahead without deleting GBK section in the file ahead, the reason should be WenQuanYi bitmap has included GBK font.
Ok, stop here about DeLi Linux chinese environment configuration temporarily, I will do some supplementing if there are any experience and lessons later. This is the last diary of this series. Welcome communicating. Good luck.
DeLi Linux development stalled, if there is anyone is interested in take over or even fork DeLi Linux, you can contact its author-Henry at http://www.delilinux.org/forum/topic.php?id=842 .
Below is Henry's announcement:
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