Are you using KDE or Gnome? If so, there's options in the control centers for this.
If not, or if you want to change the acceleration regardless of which GUI you use, you can use
$ xset m a b
where a is the acceleration (try 4 or 5 or similar) and b is the 'threshold', or how fast you have to move the mouse before the acceleration kicks in. The m is just m. I imagine it stands for mouse.
My settings work out at "xset m 4 4", so I can get form one side of my 1024x768 screen in about an inch of desk-space.
You can put this anywhere that gets run after X starts, or just run the command when you log into your GUI.