My guess is no. A computer operates by detecting devices--eg cpu, memory, PCI bus, usb hub, etc. A motherboard is just a piece of plastic and copper traces to hold it all together.
You can dig thru the output of dmesg, but I think opening the case and looking will be much quicker. Make sure you ground yourself to the case with anti-static bracelet (or just keep one hand on the case while you are poking around.)