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Start with giving us the spec of your system, it may be possible that your system will be good enough to run Ubuntu. If it is not good enough it still may be sufficient to run of the more lightweight versions of Ubuntu, like Xubuntu or Lubuntu.
In general I would recommend a dual core CPU, at least 1GB (better 2GB) of RAM and a partition with 20GB space as minimum for the latest Ubuntu version.
Sine Ubuntu 10, the GUI has switched from Gnome to Unity: you may get a nasty shock if you can run it!
Your Ubuntu recommended 512MB of RAM; the current one recommends 2GB and a 3-D graphics card with 256MB. If the graphics is Intel, you may not be able to run the installer, which only likes the latest Intel chip.
If you can't run the latest Ubuntu or don't like it, Mint (Mate) might do, and would look like the system you've got.
More details on your system specs and how much room you have to upgrade may narrow down your choices (ie if you have 512 ram..Does your motherboard support another 512 stick to be added or a better video card etc..?). With the age of your system in mind, it may be more expensive to upgrade hardware than its worth. Fairly new used systems can be had for just a couple of hundred dollars. That being said, it has already been stated that a lightweight version of ubuntu (xubuntu, lubuntu) may do the trick for you. PersonallyI have a system that is from the early 2Ks and I have debian "squeeze", and crunchbang running on that machine with no problems. Those may be worth a try as well.