In general, the mount options depend on the type of filesystem being mounted, so there is no one-size-fits-all answer. It is always best to make an entry in the /etc/fstab for commonly mounted devices.
I set up mounts fairly often and still find I must usually review the man pages. Here are some important points to note from man mount:
The non-superuser mounts.
Normally, only the superuser can mount filesystems. However, when
fstab contains the user option on a line, anybody can mount the
This is the "user"
option you mentioned and is normally an /etc/fstab option as opposed to a mount command line option, hence no -- as you noted. (Although you can specify some options from the command line using the -o option, see man page again...). The user option allows non-superuser mounts, does not directly set the user id, so it makes no sense as a sudo command line option as far as I can tell.
Once /etc/fstab has a line allowing the user to mount the filesystem (i.e. without sudo or being root) any files they create will be owned by that user by default, not by root, which seems to be your main object. Note that this still requires the mount point and mounted paths to have ownerships and permissions that permit the user to access and write to them
! But once set these will be persistent to subsequent mounts. Also see man fstab if you haven't already.
You may also make the user the owner of the mounted device... again see man pages.
Too wordy, but the trick for simple cases is to set mount options in /etc/fstab to allow user mounts, and set the directory and file ownerships of the mounted device to allow the desired user access as is normal... all will then work easily.