i don't understand what goes wrong in your install, because normally it's a really simple task to get mysql running on a debian/ubuntu installation.
as i can see you had run
but that $ makes me think that you had run that command without root permissions (without sudo).
i'm more a Debian admnistrator than ubuntu one, so normally i execute
and get a root shell.
for installing mysql you just need to run (as root):
apt-get install mysql-server
it will take automatically all the dependencies, including mysql-client.
if you have it already installed you can try (as root):
if that doesn't show you any debconf interface, can be because mysql-server it's a meta-package depending on the real mysql-server that have been installed. As an example, on an old ubuntu 10.10 machine i have running:
$ dpkg-query -l |grep mysql-server
ii mysql-server 5.1.61-0ubuntu0.10.10.1 MySQL database server (metapackage depending on the latest version)
ii mysql-server-5.1 5.1.61-0ubuntu0.10.10.1 MySQL database server binaries and system database setup
ii mysql-server-core-5.1 5.1.61-0ubuntu0.10.10.1 MySQL database server binaries
$ sudo dpkg-reconfigure mysql-server-5.1
[dialog screen asking for mysql's root password (twice)]
mysql start/running, process 18003
$ ps ax|grep mysql
18003 ? Ssl 0:00 /usr/sbin/mysqld
18040 pts/2 S+ 0:00 grep --color=auto mysql
please note that i had run those command with local user permissions and not on root's shell
in debian, you need to do the Debian way, the original package way not work every time..
besides that, i have found an affirmation that you must confirm:
: MySql will only install if you have a NON-NUMERIC hostname that is resolvable via the /etc/host file
please try that commands an dump here some more info