No... don't jump around from solution to solution. Pick one solution and follow it through to the end. b43 and STA/wl are two separate drivers that conflict with each other. If your chipset requires STA/wl (as the restricted hardware driver seems to think) then installing b43 will break your wireless. b43 needs to be blacklisted in order for STA/wl to work.
More detailed instructions are here:
Step 1 is the most important
step; properly identify your card using:
lspci -vvnn | grep 14e4
Why don't you do that and then post back with the result.
To answer your first question, once you've properly installed the correct driver, you need to reboot and then use the Network Manager icon (near the top right of your screen) to make the connection to your wireless network.