To mount the CDROM:
su (this command is Linux's equivalent of Win7 "UAC" which allows the user to aquire admin privileges)
mount -t iso9660 /dev/<cdrom block device> /<mount point> (usually /cdrom, /mnt/cdrom, or /media/cdrom. If it doesn't exist it can be created (it's a normal folder)).
To install it:
cd /<mount point>
sh ./<installer> (installer's usually either end in .run/.bin if it's a binary, .deb/.rpm/.txz if it's a package or .tar.gz/.tar.bz2 if it's an archive with sources or binaries).