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As above, each cmd uses a set of options (aka switches) that are specific to that cmd only.
Any option chosen at random may or may not(!) have the same or similar effect on another.
In short, forget it; learn the options for each cmd as you come across the cmd.
I don't know of anything that is sufficiently finite to constitute an easy answer to this question (hint: there is a reason for this), but you could have a look at a bash 'cheat sheet', which does some of what you seem to want, like this but only for a few selected commands and a few selected, but common, options. A search will quickly reveal many more cheat sheets like this.
For something like man pages, but more crisply formatted, you could look here (example is the 'ls' command - other commands are available).
Obviously, the size of the problem being problematic, you'll want to make it worse by also checking out long options and not just the short form options.
From the 3rd edition on, O'Reilly's Linux in a Nutshell has a single chapter "Linux Commands" which is, in effect, a series of mini man pages on a wide variety of commands. I have gotten still useful, non-current, editions of this book for as little as $5.
Two options that are almost universal are "--help" & "--version".
There is no standard or standardization, probably due the different origins of the commands: AT&T Unix, the BSDs, the GNU project, etc. This lack is inherent in the FS/OSS development process. -- IOW, how good are you at herding cats?