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Please don't take this the wrong way, but you are going to have to stop saying "please give step by ....." and start asking specific questions.
How far did you get with my previous post? Did you get to the point of checking the partitions. If you did what were the results? When someone asks you to do something, they are trying to help and if you don't understand what to do, or what something means, please ask about that particular issue, so that they can help you.
I sometimes have some troubles expressing myself, because I'm not English native. Sorry about that.
So far, I have burnt the linux cd, and booted with it. Then I chose the option "try ubuntu", and then I opened a terminal. I didn't do anything else.
The first command unmounts your linux partition and might return an error saying it isn't mounted, and that's fine. The second will check the filesystem on that partiton and try to repair any errors it finds. After that try to reboot Ubuntu from the hard drive.
It doesn't look so good. Had you set up a seperate /home partition you could just install a fresh copy of Ubuntu and your files and settings would remain.
At this point you can try rebooting with the live cd and try to backup /home prior to re-installing, or you can inspect /boot and look for the reason the system won't boot, or lastly, try again to boot into the ubuntu recovery mode and see if there isn't something useful in there.
I've been reading through this thread and various possibilities have been offered. One question first, do you have an USB stick at hand to make backup of your documents? Or space on one of the other partitions to put your files on?
I ask that because it seems to me that the fastest way to solve your problems is to install Ubuntu again.
You could try the solution offered by tredegar in post 21 of this thread, if you haven't done so already, to try to fix the filesystem. But I'm personally more in favor of a complete new installation.
Yes I have an USB stick at hand. I'm not sure it will be enough to backup everything though. In my opinion reinstalling ubuntu brings quite a lot of problems. Here are some of them that come to my mind, though I'm sure they're not the only ones :
- I'd need to figure out what files need to be saved, and I'd need to get usb keys or something else to save them.
- I don't know how to access the files (when I boot with the DVD, there's a different home folder).
- I wasn't the one that made the first installation. So I'm not exactly sure how to make it, and I'm not sure if some softwares were installed or not after the basic installation (so I'd have to find out both).
- I'd have to reinstall and reconfigure every software I have, as well as system preferences.
Is there a command/software that would allow me to figure out everything (files and softwares, and if possible system settings) that has been added since the installation ? I'm sure there's something like this at least for softwares...
But if reinstalling is my best option, then I will. It's just that it seems weird to me that I'd have to reinstall everything just because I didn't shut it down correctly. I do this all the time with windows (well not all the time but you get the picture), and linux is supposed to be more stable, right ?
Regarding the post 21.
I opened gparted, and clicked on gparted on the menu, then devices.
There is only one option, which is /dev/sda.
Yes I do see my username listed.
I added sudo to du otherwise many things aren't listed.
It only says 770M total (210M without sudo). Is that everything that has been added since the installation ?
(can you quickly explain why there's need to create a new directory and mount it?)