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There is a "Fedora" sub-forum in the "Distributions" forum. I'd suggest you browse to there and look at the posts.
To address your questions:
1) Fedora is a Red Hat distribution (with community involvement, but controlled by Red Hat). Basically, it is a "beta" release of RHEL with all the propitiatory software removed and no support. As such it includes many tools (e.g., "Logical Volume Management," "Security Enhanced Linux," etc.) which are of little use to non-enterprise, home, users. (Although the tools can be fun to play with if you enjoy that sort of play.)
2) A new Fedora is released every six months or so. Any book or other written "how to" for Fedora will, therefore, most likely be out of date before it's available. Most of what you'll find in a "Fedora 9" book will apply to "Fedora 10," as would much of a "Fedora 8" book. (There was a major change in Fedora releases between "Fedora Core 7" and "Fedora 8" involving more than just dropping the "core" from the name, so books referring to "Fedora Core" are probably of no interest.) The "basics" of Fedora are identical to other Linux systems as are the commands used for "console" access, so any basic "Linux How-To" book could be used to get you up and running.
3) File system access is both simple and hard on a Linux system. The "simple" part is that there is only one "file system" for Linux, and "everything is a file." Once you boot any Linux system you are, perforce, accessing the file system. This is why the prior answerers to your question seemed puzzled, and asked you for a clarification - the question you asked has too many different answers. (It's sort of like you asked "How do I breathe?" The simple answer is "Just like you're doing now," and the complex answer is, well, complex.)
Last edited by PTrenholme; 02-19-2009 at 11:21 AM.