Learn The DD command
This thread is the original incarnation of the much better, and maintained dd thread, here: http://www.linuxquestions.org/questi...ommand-362506/
This - is without question - the most excellent thing I have seen in a long time - maybe ever.
I'll post this anywhere I can - but you will be the one getting the credit.
Excellent work, I'm really impressed!
Where are you going?
I am writing a book. I'm on page 282. I have to focus. If I get a little brilliant linux idea I will post it. I forgot one thing
I told you about hidden partitions, but I left something out. Every PC partition has to end with 0x55aa, that's 55aa hex. So if you want to find out if you have a hidden partition on your drive:
dd if=/dev/sda | hexdump -C | grep '55<space>aa'
this will find every instance of this hex string on the physical drive. This is called a magic signature. Since grep will give you the byte offset, you can use dd to go investigate if it seems like there are too many partitions.
Please feel free to copy freely and redistribute.
Amazing - thank-you! I've been looking for something as clear as this for a while now!
I want to duplicate a drive. It is a 80 Gig drive and I have a 120 Gig drive. I wanted to duplicate the 80 GIG drive to the 120 Gig drive.
If I do the following:
dd if=/dev/hda of=/dev/hdb
hda = 80 Gig hdb = 120 Gig Drive
Will it set up the exactly partitions on the 120 Gig drive as it is on the 80 Gig drive?
How could I use the additional 40 Gigs without having to do a different partition? Could I some how expand the /var on the 120 Gig Drive to use the additional 120 Gig drive?
More stuff about DD
Note that sending a SIGUSR1 signal to a running 'dd' process makes it
print to standard error the number of records read and written so far,
then to resume copying.
$ dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/null& pid=$!
$ kill -USR1 $pid; sleep 1; kill $pid
10899206+0 records in 10899206+0 records out
BLOCKS and BYTES may be followed by the following multiplicative suffixes: c 1, w 2, b 512, kB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, GB 1000*1000*1000, G 1024*1024*1024
dd if=/dev/sda of=/dev/sdb bs=1GB
Will use one gigabyte block sizes.
bs=4b would give dd a block size of 4 disk sectors. 1 sector=512 bytes.
bs=4k would indicate dd use a 4 kilobyte block size. I have found bs=4k to be the fastest for copying disk drives on a modern machine.
OPERANDS The following operands are supported:
if=file Specifies the input path. Standard input is the default.
of=file Specifies the output path.
Standard output is the default.
seek=blocks Skip this many blocks in the output file.
ibs=n Specifies the input block size in n bytes (default is 512).
obs=n Specifies the output block size in n bytes (default is 512).
If no conversion other than sync, noerror, and, notrunc is specified, each input block is copied to the output as a single block without aggregating short blocks.
cbs=n Specifies the conversion block size for block and unblock in bytes by n (default is 0). If cbs= is omitted or given a value of 0, using block or unblock produces unspecified results. This option is used only if ASCII or EBCDIC conversion is specified.
ascii and asciib operands, the input is handled as described for the unblock operand except that characters are converted to ASCII before the trailing SPACE characters are deleted.
ebcdic, ebcdicb, ibm, and ibmboperands, the input is handled as described for the block operand except that the characters are converted to EBCDIC or IBM EBCDIC after the trailing SPACE characters are added. files=n Copies and concatenates n input files before terminating (makes sense only where input is a magnetic tape or similar device).
skip=n Skips n input blocks (using the specified input block size) before starting to copy. On seekable files, the implementation reads the blocks or seeks past them. On non-seekable files, the blocks are read and the data is discarded. iseek=n Seeks n blocks from beginning of input file before copying (appropriate for disk files, where skip can be incredibly slow).
oseek=n Seeks n blocks from beginning of output file before copying. seek=n Skips n blocks (using the specified output block size) from beginning of output file before copying. On non-seekable files, existing blocks are read and space from the current end-of-file to the specified offset, if any, is filled with null bytes. On seekable files, the implementation seeks to the specified offset or reads the blocks as described for non-seekable files.
count=n Copies only n input blocks.
conv=value[,value. . . ] Where values are comma-separated symbols from the following list:
conv=notrunc Tells dd not to abbreviate blocks of all zero value, or multiple adjacent blocks of zeroes, with five asterisks (when you want to maintain size) Do not use notrunc for copying a larger volume to a smaller volume. Without conv=notrunc you could have 30,000 adjacent blocks with nothing but zeroes written to them. Dd, by default, would abbreviate those 30,000 blocks *****. Then it doesn't have to write all those zeroes. But, when you copy, sometimes you want to maintain size, so then use notrunc.
ascii Converts EBCDIC to ASCII.
asciib Converts EBCDIC to ASCII using BSD-compatible character translations. ebcdic Converts ASCII to EBCDIC. If converting fixed-length ASCII records without NEWLINEs, sets up a pipeline with dd conv=unblock beforehand.
ebcdicb Converts ASCII to EBCDIC using BSD-compatible character translations. If converting fixed-length ASCII records without NEWLINEs, sets up a pipeline with
dd conv=unblock beforehand.
ibm Slightly different map of ASCII to EBCDIC. If converting fixed-length ASCII records without NEWLINEs, sets up a pipeline with dd dd conv=unblock beforehand.
I]ibmb[/I] [B][COLOR="DarkGreen"]Slightly different map of ASCII to EBCDIC using BSD-compatible character translations. If converting fixed-length ASCII records without NEWLINEs, sets up a pipeline with dd conv=unblock beforehand. The ascii (or asciib), ebcdic (or ebcdicb), and ibm (or ibmb) values are mutually exclusive. block Treats the input as a sequence of NEWLINE-terminated or EOF-terminated variable-length records independent of the input block boundaries. Each record is converted to a record with a fixed length specified by the conversion block size. Any NEWLINE character is removed from the input line. SPACE characters are appended to lines that are shorter than their conversion block size to fill the block. Lines that are longer than the conversion block size are truncated to the largest number of characters that will fit into that size. The number of truncated lines is reported. unblock Converts fixed-length records to variable length. Reads a number of bytes equal to the conversion block size (or the number of bytes remaining in the input, if less than the conversion block size), delete all trailing SPACE characters, and append a NEWLINE character. The block and unblock values are mutually exclusive.
lcase Maps upper-case characters specified by the LC_CTYPE keyword tolower to the corresponding lower-case character. Characters for which no mapping is specified are not modified by this conversion. ucase Maps lower-case characters specified by the LC_CTYPE keyword toupper to the corresponding upper-case character. Characters for which no mapping is specified are not modified by this conversion. The lcase and ucase symbols are mutually exclusive.
swab Swaps every pair of input bytes. If the current input record is an odd number of bytes, the last byte in the input record is ignored.
noerror Does not stop processing on an input error. When an input error occurs, a diagnostic message is written on standard error, followed by the current input and output block counts in the same format as used at completion. If the sync conversion is specified, the missing input is replaced with null bytes and processed normally. Otherwise, the input block will be omitted from the output. notrunc Does not truncate the output file. Preserves blocks in the output file not explicitly written by this invocation of dd. (See also the preceding of=file operand.) sync Pads every input block to the size of the ibs= buffer, appending null bytes. (If either block or unblock is also specified, appends SPACE characters, rather than null bytes.)
The following environment variables affect the messages and errors messages of dd:
Provide a default value for the internationalisation variables that are unset or null. If LANG is unset or null, the corresponding value from the implementation-dependent default locale will be used. If any of the internationalisation variables contains an invalid setting, the utility will behave as if none of the variables had been defined.
If set to a non-empty string value, override the values of all the other internationalisation variables.
Determine the locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of text data as characters (for example, single- as opposed to multi-byte characters in arguments and input files), the classification of characters as upper- or lower-case, and the mapping of characters from one case to the other.
Determine the locale that should be used to affect the format and contents of diagnostic messages written to standard error and informative messages written to standard output.
Determine the location of message catalogues for the processing of LC_MESSAGES.
Please reply if you find this thread useful
PM me when the book is ready man I want one.
Hi, I'm having a little problem when grepping my hd for email addresses.
This works just fine:
But it doesnt find anything with when I use it with dd:
But it looks all crammed together - is the formatting off or is it just me?
The second posting looks great - Its just the first one that looks like all the CR/LFs are gone.
Formating is off, but it put it in a text file on my desktop and fixed it myself.
Great doc. Congrats to you, and do let us know the title of the book when it comes out. I feel like buying a linux toolkit tricks type book.
searching a HDD
To search an entire HDD for email addresses:
dd if=/dev/sda | hexdump -C | grep '@' > email.file
It won't be formatted in the file, so you will need take out all the clutter.
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