That's a really good question...
The only way that I can think of would be with a netboot facility: you need to configure the installer to either export to the laptop, or run an answers file, without actually manually typing anything at the desktop. Netboot facilities can pass options to the installer that they load. You could configure such a facility on a virtual machine that runs on your laptop.
With the Anaconda installer that Fedora and Red Hat uses: PXE (network) boot the desktop/server with an option to run Anaconda with VNC, using the laptop as the VNC client:
Debian also has netboot support, which IIRC is explained in the installation manual.