There's difference between the driver and the device file (they're closely related, however).
sata/scsi is /dev/sd*
ide is /dev/hd*
cdrom/dvdrom is just like ide or sata
usb depends on the class it uses, it's different for mouse, pendrive, camera etc
sound card is /dev/dsp
printer - depends
For the modules run 'lsmod'. The names are (usually) easy to understand. If not, they usually have the component name inside, so it's not that hard to find out.
If you're planning to tech:
1. Install the system to get familiar with it. Nothing's better than your experience. But check that you have a recent distribution, not a 7 years old RedHat installation! Much has changed since then...
2. You may get an intro book, check what you can get in your bookstore. There are online resources, as well, if you know what you want to search for.