Hi! Welcome to LQ.
Yes this can be done, I use (and because I use these 2) the
squid proxy server http://www.squid-cache.org/
(to cache web files) with
iptables (firewall), http://www.netfilter.org/projects/iptables/index.html
you may set time and bandwidth rules with
These programs will run from any distribution, I use Mandriva. 64bit OS with
kde4(window manager, there's heaps to choose from)
You probably won't get the programs from the sites I have given above, but
install them during or after the install of the OS you choose.
Typically there are three types based on the way the "package management" works.
A package is like a program file archive. (setup.exe)
The most popular types are rpm (Red-Hat package manager) deb (Debian package system) and
src (the source files only, you need devel packages to use these)
Mandriva uses .rpm
If you get the Mandriva distro, get the official-release,
it's free and is best for installing to hd.
(there is a live "One" disk, that is a good "live", cd-rom based OS)
I have found this page useful when setting it up (squid)
from file sharing to file serving...
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