I know all this procedure on a Windows platform
If you have used gcc under windows, it work the same way under linux (or any platform it runs on).
By the way, there's a powerful tool under unix system: man, type "man gcc" will give you the online gcc documentation. But gcc is just a compiler, you'd better invoke it through a makefile, google for "makefile tutorial" will give you some good starting points.
Another way is to use IDE which hide the work, there's plenty of, some examples are eclipse, kdevelop, anjuta, code::blocks... but if you're beginning to learn programing, I think that you'd better to understand the building process, and the better way to understand it is to write makefile by hand...