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It is pretty simple. Name based virtual hosts is when you host multiple websites with different domains / sub domains on the same IP address. Apache can determine which site is being accessed by looking at the http header, even though all requests are coming to the same IP address.
IP based hosting, is when each website is hosted on its own IP address. This is becoming less and less common, especially with webhosts, as it is much cheaper and easy to manage with name based hosting.
There are protocols however, that can't do name based hosting because of the limited communication over the protocol. An example of this is FTP.
You could setup FTP Server to then direct the users to the correct anonymous folder on the server because the server knows which ip the user is connecting to. This is the same as apache IP based virtual hosts.
However, when using FTP, if the users login with a username and password, then you can use that to direct users to the right folder.