Boot like you are going to boot into a desktop. Don't log in. This is runlevel 5. Hit "ctrl-alt-F1" for a login. The processes should be running. If not, goto /etc/init.d and find the shell scripts to start them, and run "sh scriptname option". There is usually a start option for everything in init.d. If that doesn't work, try the script option restart. To check if these start, or to see if they are running: "ps aux | less". Hit the space bar to scroll through the list. Hit pgup to scroll backwards through less.
Linux is just like a woman. If you don't properly read her needs, she gets stubborn. If you can just get your hand inside /etc/init.d, she will be obedient to you. It just takes a little experience. Experience is something you just can't buy. You earn it.