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It very much depends on what distribution you're using in this assumption. If it's one of the more user friendly ones, like Ubuntu, it will automatically mount in /media/yourusername/nameofthedrive.
Much more common are distros where you must do it manually. Largely you can mount these wherever you want, but most users cheese to mount them under /mnt. Try using "fdisk -l" to find the block device of the drive (usually /dev/sdxx) and then try "mount /dev/sdxx /mnt"
Distribution: Debian Sid AMD64, Raspbian Wheezy, various VMs
I have found that most modern distros with desktop environments will mount USB drives automatically or at least, in the case of XFCE, mount them when they're selected in the file manager.
In Debian, and I think a few other distros, they tend to be mounted as something like /media/DataTraveller where "DataTraveller" is the label on the drive rather than /media/username as Ubuntu and Mint now seem to do.
Is this USB stick AUTOMATICALLY detected (and mounted) or do I have to manually mount it?
If it is automatically detected and mounted:
Where is it exactly mounted?
Is /dev/... the place?
Is the default mount point equal in the most common Linux distros (Ubuntu, CentOS, Mint,...) or are there variations?
also assuming you are running a modern distro running a modern GUI, then yes it will automagically mount the USB drive as long as you are in the GUI at the time you connect the USB drive to the system. That is a lot of assumptions, not a good place to come from.
The mount point as stated above for automagically mounted devices is /media/user_name/foo in most modern distros.
You can manually mount the USB device via CLI were ever you choose.
as for Ubuntu, CentOS, Mint, etc... you have two listed that are forks of Debian and one that was a direct fork of RHE, but now is a cross between RHE and Fedora. Yes the default automagically mounted mount point is /media/...
In Debian the default mount folder is /media but the mounting is never automatic. Typically the Device Notifier pops up when you plug something in and you click on the device displayed if you want to mount it.
/dev/ indicates the location of the physical device. This is used to tell several devices apart but /dev is definitely not the mount point where is these devices can be accessed. Running the mount on the command line will give you a picture of what's going on on your own system. A typical entry looks like this:
/dev/sdc1 on /media/backups type ext2 (rw,relatime,errors=continue,user_xattr,acl)