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Introduction to Linux - A Hands on Guide
This guide was created as an overview of the Linux Operating System, geared toward new users as an exploration tour and getting started guide, with exercises at the end of each chapter.
For more advanced trainees it can be a desktop reference, and a collection of the base knowledge needed to proceed with system and network administration. This book contains many real life examples derived from the author's experience as a Linux system and network administrator, trainer and consultant. They hope these examples will help you to get a better understanding of the Linux system and that you feel encouraged to try out things on your own.
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An "MD5 sum" is a fancy way of checking that a file has not been altered (or received in a corrupted state). It is a mathematical formula which is very good at detecting when even a single bit of a file has been altered. If the MD5 checksums do not match, you know something's wrong with what you downloaded.
A more sophisticated way of verifying that a file really is what you expect it to be is done by checking the file's signature using a public-key cryptography tool such as openssl. This is similar to MD5, except that it is not possible to supply an intentionally-incorrect check. This method not only determines that a file has not been altered, but also that it exactly matches what the person who signed it intended to provide.