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Going to really basic answer which is what I think you were after.
You should see a "login:" prompt if in text mode or a box that prompts for login (or logon or user) if in a GUI. Type in the name "root" as the user. It should then prompt you for password. Assuming you put in a password for root when you did the install you'll need to know what that password is and use it. If you didn't then just hitting enter at the prompt for password may work.
As the prior poster noted it is best to login as a separate non-root user (you are usually prompted to create one during install) then do "su -" to become root only when you need to be root. The "su -" will prompt you for root's password like the above. Doing the login as the other user works just like the root login method described above but of course you substitue the other user name for "root" and use the password you created for that user which should be different than the one you created for root.
If you didn't do the install then the person that did it likely has the root password. Note that this password is not usually given to anyone not responsible for maintaining the whole OS.