You are making things much more complicated than they need to be. Installing software in Linux is far different and ultimate much simpler than installing it in Windows, once you understand how it works.
In Windows, you typically download an executable file (or download and decompress a zip file to reveal an executable file), then run the executable file, which in turn installs the software.
sudo and apt-get are already present on your system. They do not need to be installed.
Here's an explanation of the use of sudo in Ubuntu
Here's a description of apt-get
. Distributions based on Debian use apt-get. Distributions based on Red Hat/Fedora use a program called yum (Yellow Dog Update Manager) to perform the same functions. Distributions based on Slackware--well, Slackware happily goes its own way.
In Linux, executable file installs are rare. I have probably done it with fewer than a dozen programs in seven years of using Linux.
The most common way of installing software in Linux is to install it directly from a repository or repo. When you install from the repo successfully, the installation is complete and, for the most common desktop environments, the application is added to the menu. This article summarizes it nicely for Ubuntu
The other way to install software is by compiling it. You download the source code and run the necessary commands to create an installable package (./configure
followed by make
) and then to install it (make install
). It's nowhere nearly so complicated as it sounds; this article gives a good description
Following some of these links and reading up on what's going on will likely help you mightily.