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well the literal equivalent would be to type "cd /" if that's what you mean. OR "cd .." enough times too, just like DOS.
Actually, I just remembered that under DOS it's "cd.." compared to "cd ..". This is a great example of how shi**y DOS really is, how they took bits of consistent UNIX convention and just broke them enough to make NO sense. ".." referred to the parent directory in the unix filesystem long before it did in DOS. So it makes sense to have a space in there, so the usage of the cd command is consistent. You wouldn't expect "cdmy_new_directory" to work in DOS, so why should "cd.."? See also "echo some_string > com1". DOS just magically pulls a reference to a serial port out of the air, when redirecting anything to a different name would make a text file containing it... stupid.
In Linux the top level directory, the parent of all directories, the 'root' of the filesystem is '/'. As humans we call this the the root directory, however there is possibly anther directory that you might be thinking of; '/root', which is the home directory of the user 'root'. In either case, in all shells that I know of, the command 'cd' can be used to navigate to any specified directory, including '/', or '/root'.