I'd be thinking your disk is still (at least mostly) o.k, or you wouldn't have got that far. Might be a swap problem.
At the boot menu, highlight the selection you want and hit the "e" key (for edit). Then highlight the kernel line and do the same. Remove the "quiet" from the end to see if you get better messages.
Hit <enter>, then "b" to boot it. Temporary change only - for this one boot.