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It's been a couple of months since I've set up Postfix with GMail but from what I recall it doesn't quite work with dynamic IP addresses. Anyway below is what I used some time ago and which up to date is functional (with fixed IP, not dynamic).
The relay_domains is there because this server functions as a relay server for other servers in the same network. You'll notice there are some differences, like for example you have email@example.com in your config which isn't clear to me if it's a typo or effectively existing in the config file.
Also, did you read the part where I said that it doesn't quite work when you're behind a dynamic IP, since GMail blocks those some way or another? At least that's what I found out when talking to Google at my former job.
Sure looks like it It looks like you don't have internet access at all or that they're something blocking specific things. If you get an error like that it means, just like the error states, that the URL you're requesting cannot be resolved to an IP address using DNS. Can you post the contents of your /etc/resolv.conf file?
I personally never used nor installed it but a good friend of mine just told me he has installed and used it. His findings were that it's easier to install and configure but that Nagios has more 'power', meaning possibilities. Those are his words, not mine, but I confide a lot in his experiences.