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Binaries are usually present in /bin, /sbin, /usr/bin, /usr/sbin, /usr/local/bin, /usrlocal/sbin, /opt/bin, /opt/sbin and ~/bin.
Usually Linux distributions have a package manager by which user install them. E.g. rpm, dpkg, yum. If you have a binary you can install it one of the directories and run them. These above directories are usually in PATH environment so the executable binaries present in them are run just by their name. Else you to give absolute path like '/bin/ls'.