I don't use either Ubuntu or Enlightenment E17 desktop, but I can try to give you some general infos about how the gtk2 theme is used.
If you run gtk-chtheme as a user and you apply the chosen theme, the utility should create a $HOME/.gtkrc-2.0 file.
Check if you have one with the theme you chose.
For example here is mine :
font_name="DejaVu Sans 11"
widget_class "*" style "user-font"
gtk-fallback-icon-theme = "gnome"
gtk-font-name="DejaVu Sans 11"
You can also create/edit manually this file instead of using the gtk-chtheme utility.
The gtkrc file of the chosen theme in the first line should of course exist. As you see you can choose also the font and the icon theme.
Now to have that config file used, you need a environment variable :
Personally I have it created in my $HOME/.bashrc file :
It can be .profile or something else for you.
Then do a logout/login .
I hope that these infos will help you.