grub failed to load linux (grub think ext3 partition as fat)
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I expect that somehow the installed system is seeing the disks and partitions differently. When running from the installed Linux (on the hard disk), open a terminal and enter "fdisk -l" ( It might need to be "sudo fdisk -l"). Post the results here + relevant details of your configuration. e.g. what is on hda and hdb?
Do what pixellany told you to and supply the output of "fdisk -l".
Ubuntu's installer may be using a kernel still able to see a pata disk but an installed Ubuntu will use the latest kernel that sees a Pata same as the Sata/SCSCI/USB hard disk family. Thus there may be a problem in the naming of the hard disks and partitions.
You can prove this theory by posting "fdisk -l" in the Live CD and then boot up the installed version and post the 2nd "fdisk -l".
I tried what you suggest but no luck. Grub says device not exist.
I look into device.map and it contains
which I think the correct entry, because my drive is /dev/hda and /dev/hdc.
I really don't want to change any jumper. I do no hardware changes when I install the computer. Grub work previously and it drive me crazy why it doesnt work now. All the configuration (hardware) is not changed.
What confuses me more is why I can boot when I use the installer CD. You know when I insert the installation CD into my drive, then the CD will prompt me with option
Install in text mode
Install a server
Boot from first harddisk
If I choose boot from first harddisk, it will then proceed to my grub menu. The same grub menu as before, then I can boot into ubuntu.
(Or try this at boot time---when the grub menu comes up, hit the tab key to stop the countdown, then "e" for edit. You can now try different grub commands.)
What kind of command to trouble shoot this problem?