I don't know if I understand you exactly. But what I understand would differ depending on the count of patterns (lines) in the file you use for the pattern(s).
I will show it with a simple search for the pattern(s) as filename in the actual folder.
find . -name "`cat name-of-pattern-file`"
Severeal arguments in several lines:
cat name-of-pattern-file | while read pattern; do find . -name "$pattern"; done