Can you not access Linux partitions form Linux? Or can you not access windows partitions from Linux?
You need to make it clear what you can't access in which operating system.
It appears that you cannot get access to Linux partitions in Linux, so check to see if they are mounted, by typing
in terminal window, or if you dont use X (i.e graphical display like windows) type mount in after you have logged on. Either way it should show you what filesystems are in use.
To access the floppy, make sure that you have a folder ready to mount the floppy drive to. You should have one called /mnt. If you have insert a floppy and type,
mount /dev/fd0 /mnt
You should now be able to see the contents of the floppy.
Post back if you have had any success, and the contents of typing the mount command.