hl is likely hardlink.
su looks like set-UID
sg looks like set-GID
st may be "sticky-bit"
ow looks like "other-writeable"
tw looks like "sticky+other writeable"
do might be "door" (whatever that is?)
ca may be "capability" (whatever that is?)
As to these and the remaining mysteries, you may just have to do much Googling, until someone provides a link to what appears to be a complete list
or if you find that list, be sure to post a link for us.