06-18-2004, 01:44 PM
Registered: Jan 2003
From the info pages of ls (info ls
In addition to the name of each file, print the file type,
permissions, number of hard links, owner name, group name, size in
bytes, and timestamp (*note Formatting file timestamps::), normally
the modification time.
For each directory that is listed, preface the files with a line
`total BLOCKS', where BLOCKS is the total disk allocation for all
files in that directory. The block size currently defaults to 1024
bytes, but this can be overridden (*note Block size::). The
BLOCKS computed counts each hard link separately; this is arguably
The permissions listed are similar to symbolic mode specifications
(*note Symbolic Modes::). But `ls' combines multiple bits into the
third character of each set of permissions as follows:
If the setuid or setgid bit and the corresponding executable
bit are both set.
If the setuid or setgid bit is set but the corresponding
executable bit is not set.
If the sticky bit and the other-executable bit are both set.
If the sticky bit is set but the other-executable bit is not
If the executable bit is set and none of the above apply.
Following the permission bits is a single character that specifies
whether an alternate access method applies to the file. When that
character is a space, there is no alternate access method. When it
is a printing character (e.g., `+'), then there is such a method.