SATA or ATA?
Is there an error code at all?
What was it that led you to believe your old hd was bad?
A black screen with no error code tells me there is nothing wrong with the hd but a problem somewhere with the video instead.
I don't know what the latest Fedora release is but it's possible the vesa driver is buggered instead of something with the hardware.
Each time I've encountered an hd not being found or not present at all, there has been an error code of some sort as well as a query eluding to "what do you want to do now".
The fact that the Fedora disk could see and install to the hd also tells me at least a portion of your cable is good as the Fedora disk could see and install to your hd, but it's possible a section of the cable is still bad rendering video not being transferred to the monitor so,,, do you see anything during boot?
Being able to see the Fedora disk yourself is irrelevant as it's running off of ram.
As for pins, on my spare ATA hd that I swap out on occasion on my ATA machine, with the label on top and the connectors facing you, the jumper is on the far left set of pins.
On the spare SATA, there is no jumper on the pins.
On a few new hd's I've installed, I first had to take something like gparted and format it to ntfs before the windows cd would see the hd so that is also something to give a shot.
The last thing that comes to mind to me is it's possible, although I doubt it, you bios may need reflashing.