Assuming you have the right file and not a Slackware package (tgz is short for tar.gz and also the extension for Slackware packages, kind of annoying) once you gzunzip it you get the tar file which is an archive containing the files. You use tar -xvf filename
.tar Or as $Linuxnoob said you can use tar -xzvf filename
.tgz to extract it directly. (The v is optional it just shows the files as it extracts them, see man tar for more details)
Originally Posted by great_magician
Basically, why aren't the directories in the CLI and the GUI the same? Also, how do I properly extract a .tgz file in the CLI?
I believe this is because the folder starts with a dot. In Linux a filename starting with a dot is a hidden file, it only shows up when you use ls with the -a option. Probably to see it on the GUI you have to find the option to show hidden files.
Also I see by the directory you posted that you are running as root. This is considered a Bad Thing security-wise, it also makes it easier to mess up your system. Consider making a user account for normal use with adduser username