If I understand the problem and what you have tried...
Firstly, were it I, I would look to the BIOS and my motherboard manual to see that all the settings relating to SATA/IDE/RAID seem to be as they should be.
Then I would try to boot the system with a copy of KNOPPIX 5.1.1 using the cheat codes to get it to boot. Assuming that it does, I would open a terminal and try the command dmesg to see what modules are being loaded. That will tell you what works.
You can then use the live-cd to gather information about your motherboard controllers and HDD and google to try and find out what hardware should be working and which modules or other parts of linux that need to be loaded or configured.
You might try the same procedure with a newer another live-cd with the latest controller modules, again using cheat codes if it will not boot on its own, perhaps KNOPPIX 6.0.1. The paradox is that by eliminating boot parameters, one is, as I understand it, also eliminating the loading of modules, but in the process, gaining information.
All this is based on the assumption that your installation lacks or does not load a module that is required by the new mother board.
If you have or can create a little space on a HDD, you might try to install something like openSUSE 11.1 or another newer distro from a DVD with a net update just to see if it can be installed. If it boots after installation, look to see what loads at boot that is different from any live-cd you can get working.
This is not my area of expertise, but this post may attract someone with more experience in this area.
You might also try to edit your post to give us more information and for clarity. That should make it more likely that there is a response.