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CD-ROMs are usually ISO9660 formatted, so you should try that. It is also often the case that your system will have a symbolic link from /dev/cdrom to the device which is your cd drive, although I don't know about the case of slackware - maybe it's left up to the system admin to create this if they want it. It's automatic on lots of other distros though.
If you have the symlink, and it is correct, try this:
mount -t iso9660 /dev/cdrom /mnt
Of course, make sure nothing else is mounted on at /mnt first.
If you don't have the /dev/cdrom link, and you are not sure of the device to use, try doing:
My silly mistake, of course it should have been -t iso9660. Anyway, the mount command issued the same error message, complaining about the device.
I booted into Windows to check the hardware at a basic level. The CD-ROM reads alright. However, it doesn't want to boot from a bootable CD-ROM. BIOS is set to try CD-ROM, then floppy, then hard disk. The bootable CD-ROM is just ignored and the boot happens from the hard disk when no floppy is present.
Look at your grub.conf or lilo.conf file. If you are using SCSI emulation i.e. hdc=ide-scsi then you should be using /dev/scd0 instead of /dev/hdc. Have you ever been able to mount CDs in the past? Post your /etc/fstab entry for your CDROM.
Do you know this CD is actually bootable? How was it created? If the CDs contents are a single ISO file then it was not burned correctly. If this is a really old PC the CDROM drive might not be able to handle new 700mb CDs. Yes the drive could be flaky but have you tried other bootable CDs?
BTW you can not tell from the /mnt folder to know if a CD is bootable.
You could manually edit the file but that would not fix the issue since you are manually mounting the CD the fstab file is not being used. Have you looked at your bootloader configuration file? Have you tried other bootable CDs in this computer?