This tutorial tells you all you need to know about partitioning
You need three partitions for Linux
/ (called root) where the OS and programs live
/home where your data and program configuration files live
swap used when memory runs out or if you want to use the hibernate feature
The reason for having /home is that then you can install a new version of Linux (or change to a different distro), wiping the root directory clean but leaving all your files safe.
As explained, they can be primary partitions or logical ones, all in an extended partition; Linux (unlike Windows) isn't fussy.
And unlike Windows, you don't get all that c: d: nonsense; just a single filing system, so you can refer to files without even knowing which partition they're on.