1) What do you mean by that?
2)If you want to install software you have to be root.
You can easely change the permissions for your cd-drive: log in as root; select you cd-drive in nautilus(or the kde variant), right click, properties, then permissions, then give the read, write & execute permissions.
3) Have you installed the drivers for your video card? Maybe you have no opengl support.
4)You have to mount your harddisks/partitions yourself.
Edit the file fstab. You can find it in /etc.
Read man mount & man fstab, it shouldn't be a problem once you have read those.