To view Windows partitions under Linux, you can mount them as part of the filesystem.
I don't know how Puppy handles this, but it may have already mounted your Windows disks under /media. If not, you can set it up to mount automatically by adding a line to the fstab file. This page, and the links from it, should help you: https://help.ubuntu.com/community/Fstab
Linux supports most Windows filesystems, including FAT16, FAT32 and NTFS.
There's a whole article and a roundup of tools for using Linux filesystems on Windows at http://www.linuxjournal.com/article/9449