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Some time ago I struggled with the same problem on a production server, resulting in corrupted and unreadable files. I ended up to discover that a corrupted block of RAM was causing the problem. I replaced the offending block and the problem disappeared.
To test if this situation fits to yours:
1. if you have more than one RAM block, try to remove them one at a time and reboot the machine, to see if the error disappears.
2. run memtest86 or a similar software to test RAM functionality. Some Linux installation DVDs have the memtest included in the boot options, but I cannot remember now what distributions are they.