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Addendum: Since Firefox comes installed in most distros, I've never tried this, so this is a shot in the dark.
The most likely issue is that the firefox binary does not have permission to be executable, though it could be something else. In the directory created by decompressing the tarball, what is the output of the command
Be sure to surround the output with "code" tags, which become available when you click the "Go Advanced" button at the bottom of the "Quick Reply" window.
Also make sure that the "firefox" isn't a directory containing the kit.
Firefox itself is a shell script that sets up an environment for the executable.
On my system, the installed firefox executable is called "run_mozilla.sh", which resides in yet another path, but the actual binary is $MOZ_LIB_DIR/firefox/firefox - which is /usr/lib64/firefox/firefox).
There is a fairly extensive environment setup for it... so it may not work properly without a full install to get all the shell scripts set up.
Distribution: Cinnamon Mint 17.3 and 18 at present.
I boot with Kubuntu Live CD,
I launched terminal,
go to the folder where I unpack the Firefox TAR ball,
Where is this directory? if it's on the live CD it'll never work, it's read only, do I assume it's in RAM somewhere? Is there other storage you've not told us about?
Can I ask why you're trying to do this with a LiveCD as Firefox will invariably be available through the Distro's Window manager menu? I don't understand why (or where!) you're trying to install it.
With any LiveCD distro I've spun up I've always had it connect to the internet (I'm generally cabled up rather than WiFi) and I can browse the net with Firefox from the menu as you would with an installed version.