To change it for all X Windows, in my case to danish:
Option "XkbLayout" "dk"
Option "XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys"
and for the console you need this in your startup scripts:
Depening on your distro, there maybe a smarter way of doing this, but loadkeys should work too.
I notice you are using knoppix too: for that you should press F2 at boot up the type: