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lspci shows the devices detected, not the ones that have drivers loaded. Have you compiled the driver inside the kernel or as module? If as module, try to load it manually. If it's in the kernel, look into the logs /var/log/messages and see if there are any related messages from the last boot (I expect an error).
OK eating my words. "ifconfig" by itself only shows active interfaces. "ifconfig -a" should show even the unconfigured interfaces.
Anyway "ifconfig" itself is the utility that will configure the interface manually but that may not survive a reboot.
On RedHat and Fedora the config files that will survive a reboot are in /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts (e.g. ifcfg-eth0 for eth0). I don't have this on Debian but I'm using dhcp there so am not sure where one would hardcode the interface. I did find files that contain this information under /sys/class/net/eth1 for my eth1 NIC but am not sure what put that there. It may be ifconfig is sufficient.
When a driver is compiled inside the kernel, it attaches itself to the device at boot (well, closely to that). In your case it means there had been an attempt, but it has failed for some reason. Your /var/log/messages may have the error message. Do you have any messages from that driver inside?
-17 is EEXIST, what means that the symbol (a good guess: the module) already exits. I don't know why you get such thing when it'scompiled in the kernel, where should be one copy only, but check carefully if versions of everything fit. It may be a good idea to compile the kernel once again, from fresh sources, install everything and then see if it works - some strange linking between differnet versions of the kernel has a chance to result in such an error.