Libraries belong in a lib directory, not in a bin directory (the system is configured to look for them there), so moving a library into /usr/bin is rather pointless.
I can't find any reference to a "libpthreads" anywhere except asa component to libevent. I wonder if this isn't just a typo in the Makefile of the program you're trying to compile. I wonder if you edit the makefile and change "-lpthreads" to "-lpthread" it will suddenly work. I note the argument "-DCHECK_FUNCTION_EXISTS=pthread_create", and pthread_create is a part of libpthread.
Does the TRIQS software have any documentation regarding necessary prerequisites? Sometimes library names change over the years, so if it was written on an older Linux OS it's possible that this could be a source of confusion,