if you're sure the burner works, why did you spend all that time describing it?
i'd guess it's just your burner program being shitty *cough*KDE*cough*, try anotehr one, and make sure your version of cdrecord is upto date (1.10 is the current stable)
also seeing as you did describe the system, i'd certanily remove the scsi for the normal rom drive.
no you can't mount audio cd's, why would you want to? you just directly copy the image.
try copying a cd just with...
cdrecord -v -pad speed=12 dev=0,0,0 driveropts=burnproof -isosize /dev/hdf
well.. your equivalent rather. if that works then it's your front end being shit. try gtoaster or gcombust maybe