If it is a HP inkjet or laser jet printer that you have, I would recommend installing the hplip package.
Also make sure you have cups installed.
You can configure cups with the cups web interface. Point your web browser to http://localhost:631
Before doing that, I would recommend making yourself a cups administrator with the root command: lppasswd -a <your user name>[ENTER KEY]
Then when a username/password dialog pops up using the web interface, enter your regular username and password. This works better, since cups doesn't run as root, and entering root and the root password may not work. This will get you through a small hurdle.
The linuxprinting website will have a list of printer models that are supported.