/bin, /sbin, /usr/bin, /usr/sbin - why are there 4?
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/bin This directory contains executable programs which are needed in
single user mode and to bring the system up or repair it.
/sbin Like /bin, this directory holds commands needed to boot the sys-
tem, but which are usually not executed by normal users.
This is the primary directory for executable programs. Most
programs executed by normal users which are not needed for boot-
ing or for repairing the system and which are not installed
locally should be placed in this directory.
This directory contains program binaries for system administra-
tion which are not essential for the boot process, for mounting
/usr, or for system repair.
And, to avoid a possible confusion, I believe that the "usr" is short for "Unix System Resources," not "user." So, while both /bin and /usr/bin are in user's $PATH, they do not, normally, have "write" access to those resource directories.