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The universal tool for GRUB is SuperGrubDisk. You can try the live-cd version for GRUB2, the bootloader for 10.04. It might boot the system and may allow you to reinstall the bootloader. It should at least give you some more information to work with.
I think your system may be badly broken by the "update" from 8.04 to 10.04. Normally, people go 8.04 -> 8.10 -> 9.04 .... -> 10.04, but even then, they have problems. I know both 8.04 and 10.04 are both "LTS" releases, but the upgrade process seems to be very unreliable.
Your options at the moment:
1] Reinstall your server from a backup (I hope you have one). Get it running again. Meanwhile make a clean install of 10.04 on a new partition, configure it, then gradually migrate your server's databases and whatever to it. Test it. Then you can put it into "Production", and take the 8.04 version offline.
2] If no backup: Make a clean install of 10.04 to a new partition. Configure it. Mount your old partition and migrate your server's databases and whatever from 8.04 to 10.04. Test 10.04, use it.
I have built a new server ( on a new computer ) using 10.04
So I can connect the hard disk of my old server , in slave mode , to the new one ... may be ' the solution '
Yes. But if you do not want physically to modify your old server (unscrew drives...), perhaps just boot it from a "live CD". Then establish connectivity on your LAN. (This is likely to be faster than moving hardware around.)
Then mount your broken partition(s) to the live distro.
Then use ssh or scp or sftp://user@oldserver (in nautilus) nfs or even plain old cp (the choice is yours, choose whatever you are happy with) to move the files you need, over your LAN from the live CD install, which has access to your (broken) 8.04 "personal" files. You do not care about the OS files, as the OS is broken.
Then you'll have  A working 10.04 linux installation and  Access to the files you need to bring your 10.04 server up to the functionality you need.
one thing, I can't understand how my old server could have this critical problem and ' out of order ' juste for an upgrade ?
If you search the net, you will see many people have had problems. If you think about it (everybody's system will be different in different ways), it is not so surprising.
I have always done a clean install, and then copied my needed files over to the new system. Once I am happy (usually a couple of months) the old version can be retired, re-cycled or thrown out.